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It is the common understanding of natural environment that underlies environmentalism, a broad political, social, and philosophical movement that advocates various actions and policies in the interest of protecting what nature remains in the natural environment, or restoring or expanding the role of nature in this environment. While true wilderness is increasingly rare, wild nature (e.g., unmanaged forests, uncultivated grasslands, wildlife, wildflowers) can be found in many locations previously inhabited by humans.
Goals commonly expressed by environmental scientists include:
The current crisis of biodiversity and climate change requires immediate global action. The growing importance of issues related to the global environment in international relations has been accompanied by a multiplication of negotiations, which involve the political, economic and strategic major countries.
The actions of environmental cooperation and sustainable development are intended to strengthen the capacity of developing countries to participate in environmental negotiations, to contribute to the preservation and production of global public goods and enforce action plans of large environmental conventions.
International environmental organization
The IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature, is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. The stated goal of the organization is to help the world find pragmatic solutions to the most pressing environment and development challenges. It supports scientific research, manages field projects all over the world and brings governments, non-government organizations, United Nations agencies, companies and local communities together to develop and implement policy, laws and best practice. IUCN is the world’s oldest and largest global environmental network - a democratic membership union with more than 1,000 government and NGO member organizations, and almost 11,000 volunteer scientists in more than 160 countries.
The UNEP, United Nations Environment Programme, is the designated entity of the United Nations system for addressing environmental issues at the global and regional level. UNEP coordinates United Nations environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices. It was founded as a result of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in June 1972 to act as the environmental conscience of the UN system. Its mandate is to coordinate the development of environmental policy consensus by keeping the global environment under review and bringing emerging issues to the attention of governments and the international community for action.
UNEP’s responsibilities include such promoting international cooperation in the field of the environment and facilitating the coordination of UN activities on matters concerned with the environment, and ensuring, through cooperation, liaison and participation, that their activities take environmental considerations into account.
Its activities cover a wide range of issues regarding the atmosphere, marine and terrestrial ecosystems. It has played a significant role in developing international environmental conventions, promoting environmental science and information and illustrating the way those can work in conjunction with policy, working on the development and implementation of policy with national governments and regional institution and working in conjunction with environmental Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). UNEP has also been active in funding and implementing environmentally related development projects.
The SPREP, Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme, is an intergovernmental organisation charged with promoting cooperation, supporting protection and improvement of the Pacific islands environment, and ensuring its sustainable development. Established in 1982.
The HELCOM, Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission, is an international organization governing the Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area (Helsinki Convention). HELCOM works on protection of the marine environment of the Baltic Sea.
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